The third class passengers were not kept back as any kind of policy to keep them from the boats; there was simply no policy at all - some were escorted right up, others told to wait, as lower classes always waited for everything while upper classes went first. All 32 of the engineering staff, right down to the Assistant Sixth Engineer and the Extra Assistant Fourth Engineer - Refrigeration, remained at their posts in the lower decks, desperately keeping the lights and pumps running until the last few minutes.
Not one survived. Unlike the eight-man band, these 41 engineering staff were seldom immortalized as heroes in newspapers or the various movies. Andrews had lived shipbuilding since he was A completely dedicated engineer he often arrived at the yard at 4 AM. He didn't read novels or even newspapers, just devoted all his time to mathematics and his profession.
The Titanic tragedy, as seen through editorial cartoons () - Click Americana
Workers told stories of him in his twenties saving men from falls, dodging hot rivets and laughing about it, and taking dangerous construction jobs rather than let a married man do them. He was 39 with a wife and two-year-old daughter when he boarded the Titanic. He is described as Titanic's builder, and the term is no exaggeration.
He had personally done the overall design, not only for her structure and mechanical, but even much the interior decor and furnishings; and then went on to manage the whole yard as she was built. Titanic was his creation more than anyone else's. Great Eastern at Launch Now let's flash backwards 54 years. The "Great Eastern" was the last creation of Isambard Kingdom Brunel, England's most celebrated engineer of nineteenth century - or perhaps any other.
The Great Eastern is shown here during her arduous launching from her birthplace by the Thames, there being no dry-dock in that could have held her. At feet long and over 25, tons, her length and displacement were not exceeded for almost 50 years.
At the time, she was six times the size of the next biggest ship ever built. In the foreground is the huge chain link winch being used to launch her broadside into the Thames. Brunel in front of the chain links Isambard Kingdom Brunel, posing in front of the 60 pound chain links of the winch. He was a hero, not to one company, but a whole nation.
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All England resounded with his praises. Building the Great Eastern, and two previous record breaking ships that had advanced the shipbuilding art in their time, was only one engineering field that he revolutionized. He would have been wealthy and famous for his other accomplishments - tunnels, railroads Bristol Railroad Station Royal Albert Bridge And also, of course, the large suspension bridges that the new iron technologies had made practical.
Some still survive, like the Royal Albert Bridge shown here under construction. He was, quite simply, a star. The Economist, May 18th, , pg 91 The photograph of him in front of the Great Eastern appeared again in "The Economist" magazine just last May in an article asking why engineers are no longer considered heroes and stars - It asks, "Why are architects celebrated and engineers anonymous?
He got a nearly every feature he desired. Great Eastern sections and model from "The Great Iron Ship" by James Dugan To quell fears about sailing in such a monster, Brunel was obsessive in designing her for safety. The Great Eastern, like the Titanic, had fifteen transverse bulkheads. Hers, however, went a full 30' above the water line, right to the top deck in the fore and aft. In the engine rooms, they were lower, but the engines were further protected by longitudinal bulkheads on either side.
The middle deck was also watertight, further subdividing the compartments into some 50 in all. And to even get this far, a breach had to first go through a double hull - the second hull two feet inside the outer. Military strategists and nuclear plant designers speak of "defense in depth". This was defense in depth against flooding. There was a grinding noise and a slight heel to port - but she made Flushing a few hours later without incident, listing a little to starboard. The outer hull had been ripped open by rock spire still called Great Eastern Rock on the charts. The breach was 83 feet long by 9 wide, perhaps 60 times the area of Titanic's damage - but the inner hull was unhurt and the inside was dry.
This diagram from a article in the Scientific American shows her being repaired using a carved wooden cofferdam clamped to her side, an invention of another great engineer, Professor James Renwick of Columbia University. With few exceptions, later liners cut these features. The double hull was extremely expensive and ate up space; longitudinal bulkheads made it difficult for stokers to work, and, as mentioned, watertight decks and bulkheads made it difficult to get around the ship. And the competitive pressures were intense!
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Here are nautical tales to stir the blood, me hearties! The triumph of , when the Cunard line made over , pounds; the breathtaking suspense of when they barely broke even; and the heartbreak of , when they lost big time, two years running. This chart shows the outlines of the ships that Cunard developed from to - a more than linear growth in length, and more than a cube growth in displacement. And all the while speed was increasing. The technological and cost curves were nearly exponential , like the computer industry today, as they went from wood to iron to steel, and paddle-wheels to single-screws to double.
And you had to advance and present the public with the latest, biggest product or lose all market share. They were perpetually a few percent of their income away from red ink - because when they did make big profits they mostly had to be reinvested. Puck Magazine Cover from Coleman's "The Liners" pg 53 And the competition was not just between companies, but countries, which often subsidized their lines. Cunard itself had a subsidy for carrying the mail. In the 's, when Britain's Inman line went broke, she was purchased by Americans who cut a subsidy deal with Congress.
Puck Magazine Detail As this detail from the cover of the popular Puck magazine says, "it came high, but we had to have it" America had been a major commercial shipbuilder in the days of wood and sail. When steamers had obsoleted the technology, America had been striken by the Civil War and unable to effectively play catch-up with the world-leading British. It was commercially and, in the end, militarily important to get back in the game. The competition was friendly in a sense, deadly earnest in another. Sometimes commerce, like war, is an extension of politics by other means. Public being thrown overboard.
As I said, it was a cutthroat business. The international competition gave the shipbuilders the same cry to the government about regulations that is still heard today: that costly regulation would cause them to lose business to other countries, in this case Germans and the French. Here's a ledger the accountants didn't keep.
Speed was a major competitive advantage, and also a matter of great pride, so they often went at full speed in bad weather. Everyone wanted to fly the coveted Blue Riband, signifying the current record holder for the crossing. You will note that the Cunard line is not mentioned here. They are the good guys in this story: Samuel Cunard and all his successors were adamant that speed was important, but could be sacrificed to safety. They were the classic Victorian British: stodgy, careful, conservative.
The line survives to this day, and has yet to lose a passenger to a wreck in peacetime. I did not include a com- possible. Kent Layton, Bill Wormstedt. Proofing and editing by because this theory was so very old, and had long-since remember the difference between the two, and con- Cathy Akers-Jordan. Since the claims made in the programme were ex- This team knows from years of experience that not tremely broad in scope and touch on many different everyone who is interviewed for a documentary truly subjects, this will be a lengthy and, at times, very tech- supports the final content of the programme, and some- nical article.
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In other cases, ex- ties ahead. So we will simply deal with the claims made in the programme in question, rather than speculate on what anyone involved intended to say, con- vey, or what they personally believe is true. We have worked gation of the subject. We will start by looking at the together or independently on many separate projects, claims made regarding the coal fire; then we will fol- including these closely-related volumes: Below: Titanic casts off from the quay shortly after noon on Wednesday, 10 April It was the beginning of the most-scrutinised maiden voyage in maritime history, and has spawned multiple conspiracy theories over the years.
Oppo- site: Titanic on 1 April , the day initially scheduled for her sea trials. By Tad Fitch, J.
go here We base this paper upon the claims made in the add weight to the presentation to follow. This is our British version. The album originally belonged to John remained in a fixed location. The different camera angles led them to the con- W. The ship.
Some of the views days later. A weakness in this area of the ship, it was had been taken as the Titanic left the shipyard for the postulated, could rewrite history. The fire. They are broken down into numbered seg- out, was really known only to serious Titanic research- ments for ease of later reference in Part 2 of this paper.
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- Night Before Dawn (Dawn Series Book 1);